.ricinoleyl diethanolamide

03Sep09

well, let me tell you about a ‘lil bit what I did when I was as a undergraduate student at Chemistry Department, UGM ^^

entitled, Synthesis and Characterization of Ricinoleyl Diethanolamide as Non Ionic Surfactants From Castor Oil (Ricinus communis).

why Surfactant? as we’ve known well, surfactant is an unique compound. It has two characteristic in relation with its solution properties. It has “hydrophilic” (love water) and “hydrophobic” (love oil) functional group. Those groups allow a surfactant to be dissolved in water and oil. No wonder, if the largest application of surfactants as detergents and soap.

as the development of surfactant research, now surfactants are applied in oil&gas mining industry, agriculture industry, food industry, printing industry as emulsifier, emollient, foam booster, water repellant, enhancing the viscosity of synthetic lubricant, and so on. too many its advantaguos ^^

why Castor Oil? Let me tell you an interesting facts! For many years, surfactants are made from petroleum oil, It gave  many problems due to a difficulties problem to synthesis and its low degradation level. Then, researchers tried to make surfactant from palm oil. Wow! they did great! The degradation problem can be solved and we can get the great synthetic surfactants properties. Unfortunately, due to the world’s needs about the palm oil for food, it left a big problem.
yup. Competition between Food and Industrial needs. So, to overcome this problem, we should find another natural source to synthesis the surfactant. One of the promising source is Castor Oil. It has good oil properties. good viscosity. and good fatty acid. and we can do soooo many reactions on it ^^

Ricinoleic AcidFig 1. Up to 90% Ricinoleic Acid in Castor Oil (Ricinus communis)

then, here is my research. Synthesis Surfactant. and Characterization.

A base material that I used was Methyl Ricinoleate, Isolated from Castor Oil by transesterification with methanol at 60 oC in the presence of base catalyst (NaOH).
then, Methyl ricinoleate was reacted with diethanolamine (2:1) by amidation reaction based on Kritchevsky method. Amidation reaction was observed at 150 – 160 oC for 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours of reaction time.

Amidation products was pruified by column chromatography (CC) and using chloroform:ethyl acetate (9:1) as eluent. The products were identified by IR and GC-MS, and sylilation method was carried out to the amidation products for GC-MS analysis. Characterizations of surfactant were done by measuring surface tension (capillary rise method), critical micelle concentration (CMC) based on turbidity method, foam stability measurement, emulsions index, emulsions stability and calculation of Hydrophilic-Lypophilic Balance (HLB) value based on Griffin method which is correlated with Bancroft’s rule

Methanolysis reaction gave 68.68 % yield of methyl ricinoleate with 86.99 % purity. Amidation reaction was produced ricinoleyl diethanolamide and the optimum reaction time was observed at 10 hours. Column chromatography showed significant result in separating ricinoleyl diethanolamide from its impurities. The purity of ricinoleyl diethanolamide before CC was 51.47 %, while after CC improved to 80.90 %. Result of surfactant characterization showed that ricinoleyl diethanolamide can be used as nonionic surfactant due to its properties to reduce the surface tension of ethanol at 14.71 dyne/cm, CMC at 1.5 g/L, foams was stable up to 1.5 hours, water-surfactant-coconut oil system has 81.52 % of emulsions index, while water-surfactant-gasoline system has 68.00 % of emulsions index and the stability of both emulsions have observed until 4th days. HLB value of ricinoleyl diethanolamide is 12.125 and can be applied as oil-in-water emulsifier (O/W).

Suggestion Research :

  1. Elaborate of catalyst using for enhancing the rate reaction, such as Na-methoxide. then how much? o,1%; 0,2%; 0,3% added?
  2. Biodegradation Test based on ASTM Standard Method
  3. Other surfactant properties test; viscosity test, etc.

Copyright©Titis A Kusuma Wardhani, UGM, 2008

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One Response to “.ricinoleyl diethanolamide”

  1. WOW, great post! Nutritions


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