Scientists at the University of Leicester are spearheading the development of new ways to replace harmful, carcinogenic, toxic acids and electrolytes which are currently used in many commercial metal finishing and energy storage processes.

A team of academics, PhD students and PostDoc researchers from the University of Leicester’s Department of Chemistry has received over €1 million funding to develop and apply environmentally friendly solvents.

The researchers have developed ionic liquids solvents which provide a safe, non-toxic, environmentally friendly alternative to harmful solutions. These new liquids can act as “drop-in” replacement technology, and perform as well as, or even better than, existing processes.

Overseeing the project is senior lecturer Dr Karl Ryder, who said: “One of our aims is to improve the working environment for people within the manufacturing industry by replacing unpleasant acids or caustic processes with ionic liquids. The user experience is very similar for both and no additional equipment or training is required, but the user benefits from a more pleasant and safer working environment.”

The funding obtained will drive forward an on-going programme of research in the Department that was started 4 and a half years ago by another EU project ( that aimed to develop new ionic liquid solvent technologies to transform metal finishing.

Dr Ryder commented: “The funding we have received will carry forward certain key promising aspects of work started with IONMET. Key aspects we will develop are the new battery technology and new surface finishing for circuit boards.

“The battery project is the most exciting for me, as it brings together two research themes I’ve had side by side for a long time, representing the culmination of two areas of work. I am confident it will be as good as it promises to be.

“It’s nice to be involved with both the academic side and the cutting edge of industrial processes. This represents a very challenging combination of fundamental and applied science.”

The three projects provide the opportunity to apply ionic liquid technologies to the manufacturing industry, providing a safer, more environmentally sustainable alternative to current commercially used methodologies.
The funding obtained will drive forward an on-going programme of research in the Department that was started 4 and a half years ago by another EU project ( that aimed to develop new ionic liquid solvent technologies to transform metal finishing.



Since the introduction of gas chromatographic methods in the earliest sixties allowed a qualitative advance in the potentiality for detection of many organic compounds. Volatility and Stabilization are two things that must be required by organic compounds to have a qualified result of GC and GC-MS analysis.

GC MS part I

Figure 1. Example of GC-MS Analysis, Methyl Oleate

Based on those aims, Derivatization is mandatory for polar, thermolabile, or high-mass-compounds to make them amenable to chromatographic analysis.

The preparation of a derivative may also be performed when the mass spectrum of underivatized molecule shows poor diagnostic ions. The chemical structure of the substance is changed after derivatization and, in consequence, the fragmentation pattern can be radically altered. Mass spectra with ions of higher m/z ratios and higher abundance can be obtained. For this identification purposes, the monitoring of at least three ions and their abundance ratios is usually required.

In GC-MS, derivatization can also be used to enhance the detectability of a compound by introducing groups with high electron affinity, such as halogen atoms, that can produce an increase in the ionization efficiency under Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI).

Side effects can occur on derivatization reactions.  Multiple derivatives can be formed with polyfunctional compounds as a consequence of incomplete derivatization reactions. Uncontrolled formation of unexpected minor derivatives can be produced if the reaction conditions are not well established. Side products of the derivatization reaction can affect the stability of the derivatives formed.

>> The main requirements for a successful derivatization reactions are:

  1. a single derivative should be formed for each compound,
  2. the derivatization reaction should be simple and rapid, and should occur under mild conditions,
  3. the derivative should be formed with a high and reproducible yield and should be stable in reaction medium,
  4. in quantitative analysis, the calibration curve should be linier.

>>Main Derivatization Methods

  1. Silylation
  2. Acylation
  3. Alkylation
  4. Formation of Cyclic Derivatives
  5. Chiral Derivatization

For further explanation of each method of derivatization procedure, I’ll continue to the next post to make it simple to be read ^^

well, let me tell you about a ‘lil bit what I did when I was as a undergraduate student at Chemistry Department, UGM ^^

entitled, Synthesis and Characterization of Ricinoleyl Diethanolamide as Non Ionic Surfactants From Castor Oil (Ricinus communis).

why Surfactant? as we’ve known well, surfactant is an unique compound. It has two characteristic in relation with its solution properties. It has “hydrophilic” (love water) and “hydrophobic” (love oil) functional group. Those groups allow a surfactant to be dissolved in water and oil. No wonder, if the largest application of surfactants as detergents and soap.

as the development of surfactant research, now surfactants are applied in oil&gas mining industry, agriculture industry, food industry, printing industry as emulsifier, emollient, foam booster, water repellant, enhancing the viscosity of synthetic lubricant, and so on. too many its advantaguos ^^

why Castor Oil? Let me tell you an interesting facts! For many years, surfactants are made from petroleum oil, It gave  many problems due to a difficulties problem to synthesis and its low degradation level. Then, researchers tried to make surfactant from palm oil. Wow! they did great! The degradation problem can be solved and we can get the great synthetic surfactants properties. Unfortunately, due to the world’s needs about the palm oil for food, it left a big problem.
yup. Competition between Food and Industrial needs. So, to overcome this problem, we should find another natural source to synthesis the surfactant. One of the promising source is Castor Oil. It has good oil properties. good viscosity. and good fatty acid. and we can do soooo many reactions on it ^^

Ricinoleic AcidFig 1. Up to 90% Ricinoleic Acid in Castor Oil (Ricinus communis)

then, here is my research. Synthesis Surfactant. and Characterization.

A base material that I used was Methyl Ricinoleate, Isolated from Castor Oil by transesterification with methanol at 60 oC in the presence of base catalyst (NaOH).
then, Methyl ricinoleate was reacted with diethanolamine (2:1) by amidation reaction based on Kritchevsky method. Amidation reaction was observed at 150 – 160 oC for 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours of reaction time.

Amidation products was pruified by column chromatography (CC) and using chloroform:ethyl acetate (9:1) as eluent. The products were identified by IR and GC-MS, and sylilation method was carried out to the amidation products for GC-MS analysis. Characterizations of surfactant were done by measuring surface tension (capillary rise method), critical micelle concentration (CMC) based on turbidity method, foam stability measurement, emulsions index, emulsions stability and calculation of Hydrophilic-Lypophilic Balance (HLB) value based on Griffin method which is correlated with Bancroft’s rule

Methanolysis reaction gave 68.68 % yield of methyl ricinoleate with 86.99 % purity. Amidation reaction was produced ricinoleyl diethanolamide and the optimum reaction time was observed at 10 hours. Column chromatography showed significant result in separating ricinoleyl diethanolamide from its impurities. The purity of ricinoleyl diethanolamide before CC was 51.47 %, while after CC improved to 80.90 %. Result of surfactant characterization showed that ricinoleyl diethanolamide can be used as nonionic surfactant due to its properties to reduce the surface tension of ethanol at 14.71 dyne/cm, CMC at 1.5 g/L, foams was stable up to 1.5 hours, water-surfactant-coconut oil system has 81.52 % of emulsions index, while water-surfactant-gasoline system has 68.00 % of emulsions index and the stability of both emulsions have observed until 4th days. HLB value of ricinoleyl diethanolamide is 12.125 and can be applied as oil-in-water emulsifier (O/W).

Suggestion Research :

  1. Elaborate of catalyst using for enhancing the rate reaction, such as Na-methoxide. then how much? o,1%; 0,2%; 0,3% added?
  2. Biodegradation Test based on ASTM Standard Method
  3. Other surfactant properties test; viscosity test, etc.

Copyright©Titis A Kusuma Wardhani, UGM, 2008

A team of MIT chemists has devised a new way to add fluorine to a variety of compounds used in many drugs and agricultural chemicals, an advance that could offer more flexibility and potential cost-savings in designing new drugs.


Drug developers commonly add fluorine atoms to drugs, such as the cholesterol-lowering rosuvastatin, to keep the body from breaking them down too quickly. Many of these drugs contain aromatic rings — a type of six-carbon ring — and attaching a fluorine atom to the rings can be a difficult, expensive process.

Fig 1. Eryhtrosine B Synthesis driven by sodium bicarbonate, endothermic process (traditional method)

“It’s hard to add fluorine at a late stage, once you have a complete molecule already put together, because traditional methods can be quite harsh with respect to temperature or other factors,” says Stephen L. Buchwald, the Camille Dreyfus Professor of Chemistry at MIT.

In their new technique, Buchwald and his colleagues used a palladium catalyst to attach a fluorine atom to aromatic compounds. The technique could be used in the design and testing of new drugs, or to create new imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET) scanning.

During the new process, the palladium catalyst removes a group of atoms called a triflate attached to the aromatic compound, then replaces it with a fluorine atom taken from a simple salt, such as cesium fluoride. This marks the first time chemists have replaced a triflate attached to an aromatic ring with a fluorine atom in one catalytic reaction.

“Many people believed it would not be possible to do this,” says Buchwald.

“While the method is probably not currently efficient enough to be used in manufacturing, we are working to speed up the reaction, increase its efficiency and make it more environmentally and user-friendly,” says Buchwald. “We ultimately hope to make it general enough to be useful for manufacturing.”


>> wew, sounds great right? ‘Cause for industrial issues, heat control for synthesis process is no longer the effective one, yet. so, how about you? have any idea about palladium preparation? optimation method? or other catalyst?
yeah, it makes me to have a good elaboration for this issue. a promising research ^^

international year
before we’ll talk much about chemistry and its friends ^^, for this first-post I just wanna share about the International Year of Chemistry 2011. On the other hand, there’s no chemistry class, now! ^^

yup! On December 30, 2008. The 63rd General Assembly of the United Nations has adopted a resolution proclaiming 2011 as International Year of Chemistry, placing UNESCO and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) at the helm of the event.

The chosen year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Chemical Societies (IACS), which was succeeded by IUPAC a few years later and Ethiopia submitted the U.N. resolution calling for the Year, which will celebrate the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of humanity.

Chemistry is fundamental to our understanding of the world and the cosmos. Moreover, molecular transformations are central to the production of food, medicines, fuel, and countless manufactured and extracted products. Through the Year, the world will celebrate the art and science of chemistry, and its essential contributions to knowledge, to environmental protection and to economic development.

“The International Year of Chemistry will give a global boost to chemical science in which our life and our future are grounded. We hope to increase the public appreciation and understanding of chemistry, increase young people’s interest in science, and generate enthusiasm for the creative future of chemistry,” declared the President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), Professor Jung-Il Jin.

Celebrations planned so far include an advance publicity event at the Pacifichem 2010 conference in Honolulu, Hawaii, US, in December 2010; an official launch in Paris, France, in January 2011; multiple events at the Iupac Congress in San Juan, Puerto Rico in August 2011; and a closing event in Brussels, Belgium, in December 2011.

The year 2011 is also, the 100th anniversary of the award of the Nobel Prize in chemistry to Mme Maria Sklodowska Curie, will also provide an opportunity to celebrate the contribution of women to science.

You can participate in the IYC 2011 in many different ways. There are just a few ideas and sample activities of earlier projects. What are you going to do? Think and start planning… click here



this blog is just another “book” to accomodate my deepest love to chemistry and other related sciences.

yeah. I don’t know exactly why I do love this science, much.  The only one that I know,  I was suddenly trapped to its fabulous mistery. It seems like the air which is suddenly came into your lung. Incidentally. No reason. and Goes too deep. hehehe.

well, enjoy it!

and have a nice trip, then.